05. James Monroe (1817 - 1825)

Era of Good Feelings President (1815-1840)

Party: National Republican

Vice President: Daniel D. Tompkins – rumored to have embezzled money from New York

 state, Congress established his innocence in 1824

MAJOR DOMESTIC AFFAIRS:

  • Major Supreme Court Cases under Chief Justice John Marshall:
  • McCullough v. Maryland 1819
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward 1819
  • Gibbons v. Ogden 1824
  • Missouri Compromise admits Missouri as a slave state with Maine as a free state; slavery prohibited north of 360 30’ [March 3, 1820]
  • American System – the plan from Speaker of the House Henry Clay to unite the sections of the country economically:
  • Self-sufficiency
  • National Bank
  • High Tariff to protect industry
  • Internal Improvements (roads and canals)
  • Favorite Sons Election of 1824 (Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William Crawford, and Henry Clay): none of the candidates received the necessary majority, though Jackson got the most popular and electoral votes; Clay gave his support to Adams, giving Adams the Presidency.

MAJOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS:

  • Adams-Onís Treaty 1819 (ratified 1821; cession of Florida to the United States for $5 million plus other territorial and boundary claims)
  • Monroe Doctrine – Europe end further colonization in the Americas and America will not interfere with existing colonies [December 2, 1823]
  • Sectional Tariff 1824